MCDRAM cache mode¶
KNL's MCDRAM cache is prone to cache thrashing, which can be detrimental to application performance and performance reproducibility.
The two-level memory system on Cori's KNL nodes provides a promising combination of capacity and bandwidth: DDR memory provides relatively high capacity and modest bandwidth (96 GB and 90 GB/s), while multi-channel DRAM (MCDRAM) offers more limited capacity with high bandwidth (16 GB and >400 GB/s). The MCDRAM may, as a boot-time option, be used in a ‘flat’ mode that requires software management of which arrays are allocated in each memory level or a ‘cache’ mode that is software-transparent, but incurs some latency and bandwidth penalties.
The cache mode is the default Cori because it is most convenient for application programmers and typically provides good performance. Shortly following Cori’s installation in August 2016, we observed high levels of performance variation in KNL’s cache mode, manifesting as both run-to-run timing differences and unexpected scaling challenges for applications that scale well on similar systems. Cache thrashing was quickly suspected as a likely cause because these effects were not observed in flat mode.
Figure 1. Correlation between Mini-FE performance and MCDRAM miss counters.
Analysis of the Mini-FE application also pointed to cache-miss imbalances as the source of its inconsistent performance. Mini-FE reproduces the essential kernels of a finite element application: it assembles, then solves a sparse linear system from the steady-state conduction equation1. The performance of the sparse matrix-vector product used by the conjugate-gradient solver is especially sensitive to memory bandwidth. This Mini-FE problem requires 17.6 GB memory, which was only slightly (10%) larger than the cache and performed less consistently than the other sizes tested. Figure 1 shows the joint distribution of the number of MCDRAM cache misses and performance for 256 single-node Mini-FE jobs. The strong correlation between these two measurements suggests that uneven cache miss rates are responsible for the performance imbalance across nodes. This begs the question: why would some nodes incur up to ten times more cache misses than others for the same workload? The answer to this question is tied to the interplay between cache structures and OS memory management.
Caches and cache thrashing¶
Figure 2. Direct mapped cache mapping (left) and a recipe for thrashing (right).
KNL has a direct mapped cache, which means that each address in main memory is mapped to only one location in the cache. Because Cori’s DDR capacity is six times larger than its MCDRAM cache, six different memory addresses contend for the same location in the cache and will evict each other from the cache when accessed. Cache thrashing occurs when an application frequently alternates between two (or more) memory addresses that map to the same cache line, causing a high rate of conflict misses and main memory accesses. The frequency of cache conflicts depends on an application's memory access pattern and the specific memory addresses that have allocated by the OS. Figure 2 illustrates a) the N:1 mapping between memory addresses and cache lines in a direct mapped cache, and b) a scenario in which a simple and common memory access pattern induces cache thrashing.
Figure 3. Address mapping in a 2-way associative cache.
To understand why thrashing is more common on KNL nodes than more conventional CPUs (like those in Cori's Haswell partition) It is worthwhile to note the differences between their cache implementations. The pitfalls of direct mapped caches are well known 2, which is why most modern caches are associative. Figure 3 illustrates a two-way associative cache wherein each address in main memory may be mapped to either of two cache addresses. This essentially doubles the probability that a heavily used variable will be found in cache, but significantly increases the complexity of the cache management hardware; two different cache addresses must be searched before defaulting to main memory. The L3 caches on Cori's Haswell nodes are 8-way associative, which greatly reduces the number of conflict misses. The choice to use a direct mapped cache on KNL is due in large part to the long latency for MCDRAM accesses that would be compounded by associativity. In the trade-off between cache capacity and latency, KNL's MCDRAM cache favors capacity (16 GB, O(100ns)) where Haswell's SRAM cache emphasizes latency (30 MB, O(1-10ns)).
The frequency of cache conflicts and thrashing obviously depends on whether multiple memory addresses allocated to a program map to the same cache line. The list of free memory pages (and the corresponding sets of potential cache conflicts) that the OS can allocate depends intricately on its history of allocations and deallocations. Consequently, nodes with different allocation histories can have dramatically different cache miss rates. This is the root of the variation observed in Figure 1.
We have worked closely with Intel and Cray to minimize cache thrashing on Cori. To that end, Intel as developed the ‘zonesort’ kernel module 3. The basic idea of zonesort is to re-order Linux’s free page list to preferentially allocate blocks of memory that do not conflict with each other in the cache. Cray’s Node Health Check tool frees I/O buffers and compacts memory in order to maximize zonesort’s effectiveness. However, even this approach can only ameliorate, not eliminate, cache thrashing. For example, conflicts cannot be avoided for problems larger than the cache.
We continued using the Mini-FE to assess the impact of KNL’s cache thrashing and the benefit of the zonesort mitigation. Figure 4 shows the distribution of MiniFE performance with and without zonesort. The average performance without performance is 21 GB/s, but the wide breadth of the distribution without zonesort reflects a troubling aspect of the cache thrashing problem: its impact is not uniform. Some nodes perform far worse than than others, depending on the order of their page tables at the time the job started. This has dire implications for jobs that require synchronization across nodes because the slowest node will limit the progress of all other nodes. Fortunately, as shown by the blue bars in Figure 4, zonesort doubles the average performance and greatly reduces variation.
Zonesort is now incorporated into Cori’s workload manager (Slurm) and runs before every job unless disabled. Zonesort takes only a few microseconds to run, so this has no discernable impact of job launch time. Zonesort can be disabled for each job by adding the --zonesort=off option to the srun command. (Use of this is discouraged.) If your job frequently allocates and deallocates memory while it is running, then the
srun --zonesort=<n> option, which triggers zonesort every n seconds during the run, may be useful. However, our tests of the Lulesh and Chombo-Crunch codes did not benefit from periodic sorting.
Node reboot policy¶
While zonesort has been shown to dramatically improve Mini-FE performance and variation, there is evidence that its effectiveness slowly diminishes until the node is rebooted. We have monitored the performance of the Stream triad memory bandwidth benchmark 5 following each cache-mode job on Cori. Figure 5 shows the distribution of these measurements. Immediately following reboot, all nodes achieve 350- 360 GB/s, but after several hours, a small fraction of nodes (~18%) begins to sample performance levels tailing down to 100 GB/s, despite running zonesort before every job. To eliminate this gradual degradation, we have added a Stream measurement to the Node Health Check that follows each job; nodes are rebooted whenever their measured memory bandwidth falls below 300 GB/s.
Recommendations for users¶
Cache thrashing cannot be directly addressed from user-space because the Cray Linux Environment (and most other OSs) uses virtual addresses that prevent users from seeing whether their allocated memory conflicts in the cache. Users can, however, take indirect steps to avoid cache thrashing.
For those who cannot or prefer not to modify their programs, the best way to avoid this issue is to use less than 16 GiB of memory per node so that all their data structures fit into MCDRAM. (This is most easily done by strong scaling via MPI or OpenMP.) Reducing the memory footprint does not prevent cache conflicts, but by using less memory, the likelihood of allocating conflicting addresses is reduced, particulary when zonesort is used. This will also improve performance by eliminating the DDR traffic due to capacity misses.
Software developers may be able to reduce MCDRAM cache conflicts by improving memory locality through cache re-use. Although re-use of the MCDRAM cache has no impact on the likelihood of cache conflicts, re-use of the L2 cache will reduce MCDRAM requests and the frequency of potential MCDRAM conflicts. (KNL's L2 cache is 16-way associative and has limited vulnerability to thrashing.) Increasing memory locality is also an effective optimization technique when cache thrashing is not a threat.
Direct mapped caches, such as the MCDRAM cache on Cori's KNL nodes are susceptible to cache thrashing. NERSC established a center of excellence to address the thrashing problems on Cori. The COE verified that cache thrashing was a significant source of performance variation and degradation, and identified two system-level changes to avoid cache thrashing. First, the zonesort kernel reduces cache conflicts by re-ordering Linux’s free page list to preferentially allocate blocks of memory that do not conflict with each other in the cache. It is extremely effective for reducing cache thrashing, improving average performance of Mini-FE by 2x, and is now run before every job on Cori. Second, because the effectiveness of zonesort diminishes slowly over time, nodes must be rebooted occasionally. By adding a bandwidth measurement to the node health check that follows each job, we can identify and reboot only underperforming nodes. Users can reduce cache thrashing in their jobs minimizing their per-node memory use to 16 GiB or less. Software optimizations that improve memory locality may also have helpful impact on cache thrashing.
M. Heroux and S. D. Hammond. “MiniFE: finite element solver.” ↩
"Computer Architecture, A Quantitative Approach", J. L. Hennessy and D. A. Patterson, Morgan Kaufmann, 2003. ↩
"Intel Xeon Phi Processor Software User’s Guide", Intel Corporation, 2017 ↩
The Slurm plugin that enables and controls zonesort on Cori was developed at NERSC and is not part of the generic Slurm distribution. ↩
J. D. McCalpin, “Memory Bandwidth and Machine Balance in Current High Performance Computers,”, IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Computer Architecture (TCCA) Newsletter, 1995. ↩